Date of Publication
This correlational research which aimed to determine the extent of implementation and the level of importance of the specific features and the gaps in the utilization of the instructor-made clinical simulation scenarios used the national League for Nursing (NLN) Simulation Design questionnaire as the main instrument in collecting data. it also used Gaps Analysis in determining the gaps in the expected outcomes and actual performance on the utilization of clinical simulation scenario. The participants of the study were nursing students who were exposed to the instructor-developed clinical simulation scenarios made by the College of Health and Allied Professions. A very great extent of implementation was seen in the five features of simulation namely Objectives, Support, Problem Solving, Feedback , Fidelity with median scores of 5.5, 4.8, 5.0, and 4.68 respectively. On the level of importance of the five features, results revealed a median score of 5.0 in all the features and 4.92 as a whole which suggests that it was very important. Further, they showed that a relationship exists between the implementation and importance on the specific features of case scenarios with a tau-b correlation for Objective and Information: 0.44, Support: 0.48, Problem Solving: 0.40, Feedback/ Guided Reflection: 0.36, Fidelity: 0.27, and as a whole: 0.39. On the Gaps between expected outcomes and actual performance on the purpose and objectives, it revealed that goals of the clinical scenario were aligned with the level competencies provided by the curriculum. However, there was an inconsistent evaluation of the students' performance. In the area of support, students' need for help was recognized and was supported with the learning process during the simulation, however, too many cues/prompts were provided that limit the critical thinking ability of the students. In Problem Solving, the clinical scenario was designed for some specific level of knowledge and skills of students, nevertheless, scenarios for both levels II and IV consider revision. On Feedback/ Guided Reflection, constructive feedback was provided. However, opportunities for repeated practice with feedback and structured learner reflection may be provided. Fidelity revealed the accurate representation of the clinical environment and participation of the Clinical Instructors who have had the experience and mastery of the given scenario. Thus, a recommendation for more Simulation Clinical Experience (SCE) -trained clinical instructors to address the identified gaps is needed.
1. Croux,, C., , Dehon,, C., . Influence functions of the Spearman and Kendall correlation measures. Statistical methods & applications, 19(4). 2010. 497-515.
2. Decker,, S. I., Anderson,, M., , Boese,, T. , Epps,, C. , McCarthy, J. , Motola,, I. , Scolaro,, K . Standards of best practice: Simulation standard VIII: Simulation-enhanced interprofessional education (Sim-IPE). Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 11(6). 2015. 293-297.
3. Decker,, S. , Fey,, M. , Sideras,, S. , Caballero,, S. , Boese,, T. , Franklin,, A. E., Borum,, J. C.. Standards of Best Practice: Simulation Standard VI: The debriefing process. Clinical Simulation in Nursing 9(6), S26-S29.
4. Decker, S. , Sportsman, S. , Puetz, L. , Billings, L. . The evolution of simulation and its contribution to competency. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 39(2). 74-80.
5. Evans, J. D.. Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences.. Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1996.
6. Eyikara, E. , Baykara, Z. G.. The importance of simulation in nursing education.. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues 9(1) 02-07.
7. Commission for Higher Education, CHEDMemorandum No. 15. (2017). Retrieved from:
8. Kim, S. , Shin, G. . Effects of nursing process-based simulation for maternal child emergency nursing care on knowledge, attitude, skills in clinical nurses.. Nurse Education Today 37, 59-65.
9. (). National League for Nursing/ Jeffries simulation framework. . Retrieved from:
10. National Research CouncilAdvancing the science of climate change. National Academies Press 2011.
11. O, P. S., Blevins-Stephens, W. L., Smith, F. M., Vaughan-Wrobel, B. . Addressing the National League for Nursing critical-thinking outcome.. Nurse Educator 22(1) 23-29.
12. Schug, V. . Using national league for nursing accrediting commission standards and criteria.. Nursing education perspectives 33(5) 2012. 302-395.
13. Nestel, D. , Weller, J. M., Marshall, S. D., Brooks, P. M., Conn, J. J.. Simulation in clinical teaching and learning.Medical Journal of Australia 196(9) (2012):
14. Wilson, R. D., Hagler, D. . Through the lens of instructional design: appraisal of the Jeffries/ National League for Nursing Simulation Framework for use in acute care.The Journal for Continuing Education in Nursing 43(9) , 428-432,